Sunday, March 15, 2020

Profile of Mary Lacey Sr. & Mary Lacey Jr, Salem Trials

Profile of Mary Lacey Sr. & Mary Lacey Jr, Salem Trials The name â€Å"Mary Lacey† belongs to two women involved in the Salem witch trials of 1692: Mary Lacey the mother (referred to here as Mary Lacey Sr.), and her daughter Mary Lacey (referred to here as Mary Lacey Jr.). Mary Lacey Facts Known for:  in the 1692  Salem witch trialsAge at time of Salem witch trials:  Mary Lacey Sr. was about 40, and Mary Lacey Jr. was 15 or 18 (sources differ)Dates: Mary Lacey Sr.:  July 9, 1652- 1707.  Mary Lacey Jr.: 1674? - ?Also known as:  Mary Lacy Family, Background: Mary Lacey Sr. was the daughter of Ann Foster and her husband, Andrew Foster.  Ann Foster emigrated from England in 1635.  Mary Lacey Sr. was born about 1652.  She married Lawrence Lacey on August 5, 1673. Mary Lacey Jr. was born about 1677. Mary Lacey and the Salem Witch Trials When Elizabeth Ballard of Andover fell ill with a fever in 1692, the doctors suspected witchcraft, knowing of the events in nearby Salem.  Ann Putnam Jr. and Mary Wolcott were called to Andover to see if they could identify the witch, and they fell into fits upon seeing Ann Foster, a 70-something widow.  She was arrested and sent to Salem jail on July 15. She was examined on July 16 and 18.  She resisted acknowledging that she had committed any witchcraft. An arrest warrant was issued against Mary Lacey Jr. on July 20th, for â€Å"Committed Sundry acts of witchcraft on Eliz Ballerd, the wife of Jos Ballerd of Andover. to her great hurt.† She was arrested the next day and brought to an examination by John Hathorne, Jonathan Corwin, and John Higginson.  Mary Warren fell into a violent fit at the sight of her.  Mary Lacey Jr. testified that she had seen her mother, grandmother and Martha Carrier flying on poles given by the Devil.  Ann Foster, Mary Lacey Sr. and Mary Lacey Jr. were examined again that same day by Bartholomew Gedney, Hathorne, and Corwin, â€Å"accused of practicing witchcraft upon Goody Ballard.† Mary Lacey Sr. accused her mother of witchcraft, probably to help deflect the charges against herself and her daughter.  Ann Foster had until that time denied the charges; she may have shifted strategies to save her daughter and granddaughter. Mary Lacey Sr. was indicted for bewitching Mercy Lewis in Salem on July 20. On September 14, the testimony of those who charged Mary Lacey Sr. with witchcraft was delivered in writing.  On September 17, the court tried and convicted  Rebecca Eames, Abigail Faulkner, Ann Foster, Abigail Hobbs, Mary Lacey Sr., Mary Parker, Wilmott Redd, Margaret Scott, and Samuel Wardwell, and they were condemned to be executed. Later in September, the last eight convicted of witchcraft were hanged, and at the end of the month, the Court of Oyer and Terminer stopped meeting. Mary Lacey After the Trials Mary Lacey Jr was released from custody on October 6, 1692, on a bond. Ann Foster died in jail in December of 1692; Mary Lacey was eventually released.  Mary Lacey Jr. was indicted on January 13 for â€Å"covenanting.† In 1704, Mary Lacey Jr. married Zerubbabel Kemp. Lawrence Lacey sued for restitution for Mary Lacey in 1710.  In 1711, the  legislature of the Province of Massachusetts Bay  restored all rights to many of those who had been accused in the 1692 witch trials. Included were George Burroughs, John Proctor, George Jacob, John Willard, Giles and  Martha Corey,  Rebecca Nurse,  Sarah Good, Elizabeth How,  Mary Easty, Sarah Wilds, Abigail Hobbs, Samuel Wardell, Mary Parker,  Martha Carrier, Abigail Faulkner, Anne Foster, Rebecca Eames, Mary Post, Mary Lacey, Mary Bradbury and Dorcas Hoar. Mary Lacey Sr. died in 1707.

Friday, February 28, 2020

Research paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 4

Research paper - Essay Example Thus, this paper considers supporting and opposing arguments, arguing against the perception painted by the media that the sports are too dangerous. Introduction The phrase, ‘extreme sport,’ refers to a collection of activities traditionally associated with risk taking. They mostly involves dangerous elements like severe weather, high speeds and high altitudes, therefore making them highly risky sports, particularly when judgment or equipment fail (Burke and Orlick 42; Clemmit 304). The mental and physical demands in these sports are high. Jay (6) categorizes these sports into three based on the place of action. Speed is the major goal in extreme land sports. Extreme air sports have its participants fly, leaping off a high building or bridge. Extreme water sports involve speed, balance or nature exploration. These are all risky sports and should be tried only with proper equipments and training and under supervision. Examples of these sports include high altitude climbin g, skating, motor-cross and martial arts among others. Extreme sports have become popular all over the world because of entertainment industries, corporate sponsors and mass communication. According to Mickle, over the past two decades, the sport has grown exponentially, outdoing other sporting activity. Many organizations use these sports to sell their products because the sports attract mass audience. Another reason is because they want customers to associate their products with the power exhibited in extreme sports. For example, snowboarders are about 18.5 million in the world, with 75% of America’s population of these snowboarders being made up of young people below the age of 24 (Clemmit 300). This popularity could be interpreted to show that the sport is not as dangerous as the public has been made to perceive it or that many people are at risk of the involved dangers. It is therefore important to consider arguments on either side to make an informed conclusion. Argumen ts for Extreme Sports being too dangerous Referring to these sports as extreme indicates their potential; any small mistake could highly lead to death, hence considered as too dangerous. First, they are barbaric and deadly. Clemmit (299) gives the example of mixed martial arts, MMA, where combatants use deadly moves which are kickboxing, sumo and jujitsu among others. It is out of such techniques that the author gives the example of Dean Lewis, a Canadian teenager who was injured badly in the ring because of an upkick to the nose, an illegal technique in MMA. In fact, the American and British medical associations does not approve of ultimate fighting because they risk physically and permanently harming participants. Their advocacy for states to ban such sports has seen states such as New York consider illegalizing such extreme sports (Profato 313). The risk of death extends from competitors in such sports to third parties, including the referees and audience. Even if participants pr epare themselves well, unforeseen risks such as slippery surfaces could easily lead to fatal accidents. Therefore, even the most competent sportspersons face the risk of death from extreme sports. Damage to property has been another reason for argument against extreme sports by its opponents. Property stand to be destroyed in case of an accident in these sports because most of them happen in public, multi-use spaces (Clemmit 310). Motor-cross sports have been cited

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Management Managerial Process Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Management Managerial Process - Essay Example In fact, there is no technique or method that could ensure that a risk would not occur during the project. In this scenario, every project manager is well aware of the fact that they have to deal with a variety of risk all the way through the project life cycle. In the context of a project, a risk can be an action or event that can have an effect on the project. However, the nature of this effect can be either positive or negative. Additionally, a risk can have a cause and it takes place in the result of an event. For example, a cause can be related to changes in scheduling which can affect other activities of the project. In addition, the majority of the project risks can affect project duration, budget, schedule, and quality. Moreover, project risks are managed through project risk management approach. In this scenario, risk management is the process of identifying and managing project risks. Figure 1Risk Management Process, Image Source: (Gray, Larson and Desai 209) (Gray, Larson and Desai 207) presented a risk management model to deal with project risks. Figure1 presents a graphical representation of this model. This model is divided into different phases and each phase performs specific tasks. The first phase is risk identification where a detailed analysis is carried out on the project in order to determine the sources of risks. At this phase, the project management team determines the holes that can cause any risk during the project. Once this phase is completed this process moves to the next phase that is known as risk assessment. At this stage, the project management team further analyzes the identified risks. In this scenario, they analyze these risks on the basis of their severity level, probability and so on. For instance, if a risk occurs then what impact it will have on the project. After the completion of this phase, this process moves to the next phase that is known as the risk response and development phase. At this stage, a project management team develops the strategy or plan to deal with identified risks. At this stage, the project team finds the solutions to minimize the impact of these risks on the overall project. The last stage of this process is known as risk response control. This phase involves monitoring and controlling the project risk strategy (Gray, Larson and Desai 209). A risk is anything that may potentially hinder with successful completion of the project or business task (CIO Archive; Kerzner). A project can involve a wide variety of risks. Some of the well-known kinds of risk can include: Time Risk This kind of risks is very common in projects. In this scenario, the time duration for the completion of a project can increase, which can create various problems for the project management team such as the need for additional resources and budget. Cost Risk The majority of projects has fixed budget and the project team needs to complete a project within this budget limitation. However, in some cases, the pr oject budget can increase which cause various problems for the project. Legal Risk International projects involve the execution of project tasks in various countries so it can require compliance with laws and regulations of these countries. In case of not following these rules and regulations can cause serious problems for the project and organization. Technological Risks Some projects involve the implementation of latest tools and technologies.

Friday, January 31, 2020

Students and Politics Essay Example for Free

Students and Politics Essay The student community, being young and energetic, are a bundle of inflammablematerial, which at the touch of a spark ignites into a large uncontrollable fire like forestfire. They, being young have no patience, are lively and malleable. In India, the trend of students actively participating in politics began in the early 20thcentury, when India was fighting for its freedom. The elders being busy with their breadearning, they actively encouraged the youngsters to enter the arena of politics. Besides,they were young and would be easily enthused to join the mass movement at the drop of a hat. Political parties at that time started enlisting the support of the young students whoorganized themselves happily, to help one party or the other. This trend started in theearly years of 20th century and continued and even expanded up to date. However, once independence was won, it was to be reconsidered if students should beallowed or couraged to enter politics. Some sections of society now started believing thatstudents should stay away from politics and keep to their study schedules only. While thesociety kept debating on this issue, the politician took the younger generation as their work cum energy tanks and this participation of students in politics has come to stay. The present scenario in India is thus a keen struggle of political parties engaged inenlisting support of students. This obviously results in the students getting sharplydivided as if they were of this political party or that so much so, even the campuselections become tainted with a touch of politics. There is of course nothing without advantages and disadvantages, so does thisinvolvement of students in politics. There are both serious disadvantages and may be fewadvantages too of students being on the centre stage of politics. Disadvantages outnumber the advantages. Firstly, while the students, have primarily entered college for studies theyget distracted from their prime objective and become entangled in the dirty game of politics. The energy and time they use or waster in masterminding political moves, couldwell be used to study. This entry of politics in the premises of educational institutions hascaused many a damage to several students. Students have got rusticated owing to their active participation in politics, thus losing their hold on studies. Politics teaches studentsto put an end to all rules and regulations and become rowdy and violent. This leads to closure of institutions which again take a toll of students study time. Thevery innocent and loving appearance of children gets lost and they become rude, arrogantand disobedient. When there is too much of hooliganism entering into educationalinstitutions, even police is to be called sometimes and there is utter disorder in thecampus and even bullets find their way among the students. The disadvantages of students entering politics are numerous and destructive. When we study the advantages of this system, they do exist but, are very few and hardlysignificant. Children entering the arena of politics learn the art of public speaking. Theylearn to be assertive and impressive. This medium is a good stepping stone to the art of leadership. The important and real advantage is that students in these prime years of life gain a lot of knowledge of politics which gives them training to enter the arena as trained politicians. After studying the pros and cons of students participation in politics, the disadvantagesare more damaging than the gains acquired in the sequence. For, all the advantagesstudents gain, can as well be achieved so in other ways also and there is no need for their entry into politics. Students must stay away from politics and retain their interest in studies which alone canhelp them steer the ships of their lives. The most progressive, articulate, inspired and dynamic segment of the country’spopulation is the student’s community. The formative period of student’s lifeshould be utilized for an all round balanced development of his/her personality. Political experience constitutes an essential part of this learning experience. Thisperiod prepares one to face the challenges better and enables one to succeed inlife. The much hyped dirty murky nature not with standing. Politics has the potentialto inculcate qualities like general awareness, keeping abreast with current happenings and above all leadership qualities in an individual. Student’s who joinpolitics are good orators. They become assertive by shedding their timid nessand shyness. Tackling problems and solving disputes and handling crisissituations however small or big they may be, infuses confidence in them. It helpsin developing skills to deal with people from all backgrounds and of all shades of opinion. Moreover, politics cannot be divorced from a student’s life as he continuouslyinteracts with the Student’s Union and various other student associations incollege. Students also have a great deal of exposure to mediums like the press,television, cinema, etc. hich are important agents of political expression. Political science is a vital part of the syllabi both at the school and college level. This underlines the role that politics plays in various stages of a person’s life. Hence, it is futile to shut out students from politics. History is replete with examples of students playing a vital role in over-throwingcorrupt dictatorial regimes, freeing their people from foreign yoke and launchingrelentless crusades against social injustice and exploitation. Majority of the greatleaders entered politics during their student life. Therefore, political education or training during student life is important for success in life. Many students’organizations like all Manipur students union (AMSU) are big and powerfulstudents’ organizations in the north eastern part of India. Their clout is so greatthat they could even go against the general people’s verdict. Where politiciansfail, they succeed easily. The power of the youth is a mighty river, waiting to bechannelized. The politics of a particular system determines whether this happensin a constructive or destructive manner. However, there is a limit to the extent of a students’ involvement so that abalanced participation does not affect his main purpose, which is to study. Whilehe is not expected to remain passive in the face of criminalization of politics,dismantling of democratic organizations, corruption, communalism and casteism,he should not indulge in factional or partisan politics, or give into the unjustdirections of senior party leaders. The student wing should herald the new, onlythen do they deserve to be called the promise of tomorrow. A better tomorrow.

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Tom Stoppards Arcadia Essay -- Arcadia Tom Stoppard

Throughout the text, Tom Stoppard's novel Arcadia makes a series of philosophical statements regarding the theme of determinism. These statements are developed largely through images and completely different time periods, particularly those of the Romantic and Enlightenment era ¹s. Tom Stoppard uses the theme of determinism to show how the ideas of the Romantic era and the present day have gone in a circle. And that even though we get more and more advanced everyday, Stoppard shows us that despite our constant advancement, our basic ideas have remained unchanged. Author Tom Stoppard portrays this belief of a time cycle through the image of the apple juxtaposed with the image of the garden.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In Arcadia, Tom Stoppard uses a scientific view of determinism along with a religious view on determinism in order to allow the reader to see similarities in ideas between the Romantic era and the present day. Religious determinism in Arcadia is shown to have to do with God/fate, predestination, and the future whereas the scientific view has to do with Newton, and with biological determinism. Although both stories do use both aspects of determinism, it is usually the story from 1809 using the scientific determinism whereas in the present day, they use more of the religious view of determinism.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In the first story, a scientific view of determinism is shown through Septimus and Thomasina in order to introduce to the reader the basic ideas on determinism and science.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  ...

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Theories of development Essay

A theorist is a person who develops or believes an idea in which to explain something, including what, how and why. Theories are development through observations, analysing and experiments. Theories of development are important because they help us to understand children’s behaviour, to help us understand the sequence that children and young people develop. Theorists- influencing current practice. Cognitive development. A Swiss biologist and psychologist jean piaget (1896-1980) is renowned for constructing a highly influential model of child development and learning. He suggested that children develop cognitive skills through mental â€Å"maps†, schemes and network concepts for understanding and responding to physical experiences within his or hers environment. Piagets theory identifies four developments stages these four stages are, sensorimotor stage 0-2 years, preoperational stage 2-7 years, concrete operations 7-11 years, formal operations 11-15 years. Educators must plan activities that are developmentally appropriate according to the curriculum which expands the student’s logical and conceptual growth. Another theorist that supports cognitive development is Vygotsky. He believes that children learn and understand through others around them, such as friends and family. He believed that children need challenges and teaching experiences set for them to help them develop in all areas and to help them to reach their full potential. Psychoanalytical development. Sigmund freud (1856-1939) another theorist believed that there are 3 parts to each child and young person’s personality. He believed that there are; the ID, the ego and the super ego. He believed that these 3 parts aren’t always there from when the child is born but develop with the child as they grow. He said that they are different through certain factors and behaviour between each different child, Humanist. Abraham maslow (1908-1970) looked at peoples motivation in the 1940’s. He  believed that people needed to meet their fundamental needs before they could meet their potential or self-actualisation. He believed that if they were not met then they would become a deficiency in the person. This links to practice because we need to meet the needs of the children for, warmth, care, hunger and environment that they are providing and what they do to meet the children’s needs. Social learning. Social learning theorists believe that we learn through observing others. Albert bandura born 1925 believes that we learn through ‘imitation’. Eric Erikson (1902-1994) believed that a child and a young person’s personality will change throughout their life, due to social development and experiences. This links to practice as nursery practitioners are told to be good role models to the children. This is because they observe us and ‘copy’ or ‘imitate’ actions that we may make. Operant conditioning. The theory of operant conditioning is based on learning from the consequences or reinforcement due to a type of behaviour. B.F skinner (1904-1990) is recognised as a key figure for developing the behaviourist approach to learning and developing the theory for operant conditioning. He believed that we learn through our experiences in the environment and the consequences to our behaviour. Skinner separated the sequence of actions into three groups; 1; positive reinforces 2; negative reinforces 3; punishers. The positive reinforcers are what make us repeat actions or behaviour when we get something we desire. Skinner suggested that the positive reinforcement was the most effective way of encouraging new learning, such as getting attention from adults, receiving praise and receiving rewards. The negative reinforcers is a behaviour that also makes us repeat actions or behaviour, but not in a bad way but in a way to stop something bad happening from something good. For example children may learn to hold onto the stair rail when walking down the stairs to steady them self rather than feeling the  need to sit on their bottom and bump down them. The ‘punisher’ is what is going to stop people from repeating behaviour, such as checking the temperature of the bath water before getting in it, after burning yourself because you didn’t check. Skinner also researched unexpected positive reinforcers. This is when children show negative behaviour to receive attention from adults. He proved that showing more frequent positive reinforcement was the most thriving way to help children learn about acceptable behaviour. This links to practice because we reward and praise children for showing positive behaviour. Nursery practitioners often say ‘well done’ to children as a way of praising them for showing positive behaviour than their negative behaviour. We also try to focus more on children’s positive behaviour rather than their negative behaviour, this is because they eventually learn that their good behaviour is more noticed and praised than their bad behaviour. This proves skinners theory. Behaviourist. The behaviourist theories suggest that learning is influenced by rewards, punishments and environmental factors. ‘conditioning’ is often used by behaviourists because we learn in a certain way due to past experiences that teach us not to do something or to do something. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) was a physiologist who was studying dogs. Whilst doing this he recognised that the dogs started to salivate before their food had been put down for them. He came to the conclusion that they were doing this because they learnt to associate the arrival of the food with other things such as, the sound of footsteps and the bowls or buckets. He did and experiment to look at this more closely. He used a bell because dogs do not salivate when hearing a bell. The dogs eventually begun to associate the bell with been fed. He then rang the bell constantly and eventually the dogs begin to stop salivating and finally did not react to the sound of the bell. Behaviourists use the term extinction when this happens. John b.watson (1878-1958 Took up pavlovs work and demonstrated that children and adults can be classically conditioned. In an experiment he created a phobia of rats in a little boy known as little Albert. In our practice we do not experiment or use classical conditioning, although we may recognise it among the children for example, children may become excited when they see bowls or a tray been  brought into the room, they may associate this with food being given to them after this happens. Another example would be that at the end of the day all the children put their coats on they then may anticipate home time because they associate putting their coats on with their parents arriving to take them home. It is also useful to remember that classical conditioning can relate to children’s phobias. Social pedagogy. Social pedagogy is the holistic and thoughtful way of working. The aim of this is to improve the life chances and social outcomes of babies and children, therefore we must work with each other as well as the children to find the best possible way of improving these outcomes. The theories of development that have been shown help childcare workers put together framework and education for the children. It also helps us to understand why babies, children and young people do things the way they do. Conclusion. This shows that theorists have helped us come to conclusions for why we do things the way we do as well as how we learn through our experiences. It also helps to understand these theories so that we can provide better care and knowledge in the childcare setting. Task c. introduction pack for a new staff member. At the mother goose pre-school we monitor each child’s development we do this by using the learning journey. In the children’s learning journey we have â€Å"early learning goals† for each specific age group, to give us guidelines or the â€Å"norm† development for each stage of their time at the setting. We also carry out observations on the children to show which stage they are at, at the time on the early learning goals. Before any observations take place on the children, permission must be given from the parent/carer, this is also helpful as we can share findings with the child’s parent/carer and they can share findings with ourselves. If we were to do observations on a child without consent from their parent/carer then they may feel angry and upset as they may not understand that this is normal practice and help us to help the children. Assessment methods. Here are two examples of assessment methods we use to monitor a child’s development; checklist/tick chart and a free description with a snap shot picture. A checklist and tick chart observation is a chart with particular activities written on and the child is observed to see if they can reach the milestones set according to the child’s age. These observations are usually taken place when structured activities are set up for the children to do and are based over a longer period of time, but are taken place less frequently to show the progress in the children’s development. The advantage of using this observation is that you can observe more than one child at a time and they are quick and easy to use. The disadvantage of this is that observing at different times may produce different results and that it only shows what the child can and cannot do, not how confident and happy they are to attempt tasks and join in. A free description with a snap shot picture is to show skills that children show or are seen doing. A description of what you see is written into a small observation sheet and put the child’s learning journey next to the picture of them doing so. These observations are used frequently to show what milestones the child is at for their age group. The observation has the advantage of been able to use it frequently and no preparation is needed. Although the advantage is that different observers pick up on different things that children do and it can be hard sometimes to find the right words to use to describe what you are seeing. Examples of why sometimes child/young person’s development does not follow the expected pattern. Children develop at different stages for example, a baby of 12 months may be walking with support but a baby of 10 months may be walking unaided. Some children just happen to develop quicker or slower than others, but for some babies and children there are reasons why their development does not follow the expected patterns. Premature birth can have an effect on development, such as sitting up unaided, crawling, standing and walking. Learning difficulties can also have an impact on development, some children may pick up writing and reading easier than with a learning difficulty, but help is available such as special support and multi-agency approaches. Another reason why development may be delayed could be disability for example, a baby that has a disability with their legs may not be able to walk until they are 2 or 3 where as the expected age is roughly 1 years old. Impact by disability. Disability can impact and effect development as it can prevent children and young people from completing tasks. Although most activities can be adapted to suit children and young people’s needs. Intervention. Intervention can be done to promote positive outcomes for the child or young person where development is not following the expected pattern. Specialist support can be used in the preschool to support children with learning difficulties or disabilities. They can arrange meetings to come and see the child to observe them and give the child’s key worker activities and goals for the child to meet. Multi agency approaches can also take place to help babies, children and young people to meet the expected pattern of development. Another intervention could be supported play by adapting the activities to support the child or young person to reach the milestones for their age group. Task d . Early identification. Early identification of speech, language or communication delay is important for a childs well-being because it can affect their development. The sooner it is picked up on the sooner it can be amended therefore the child will not miss out on educational activities and lessons which would otherwise potentially hold them further back. Potential risks. Any delays in a child’s speech, language and communication could result in a lack of development in the future. They may not be able to develop their skills further for example, if a child cannot speak then communication will also become a problem. This is why it is important to identify these delays early. If a child cannot speak then their development will slow down as they cannot further their skills through others around them. This can therefore cause the problem to become greater if it is left to long. Importance of early identification and potential risks of late recognition. It is very important that early identification to speech, language and communication as it can affect children and young people’s further development and expanding skills. If it is picked up on early enough then help can be given to the child to either overcome the issue or to give extra support to them to help them develop further. If it isn’t picked up on early enough then the child  could fall behind in development and education. When a child falls behind it can sometimes be difficult for them to catch up although there are organisations to give extra support to the child. Multi-agency team. There are many organisations that can help support a child or young person’s speech, language and communication. The child’s GP (general practitioner) can refer the child to a speech therapist which will help their speech and communication. The child’s health visitor can also help with the child’s speech, language and communication. How when and why. A multi-agency team would be brought in to support a child when a speech, language or communication delay takes place. The manager would have a meeting with the child’s parent/carer to discuss the issue and then they would discuss the best possible option for the child. If they decide that a multi-agency team is to be contacted then a meeting would be arranged with the team to examine how the child can be helped. They then will arrange with the team to examine how the child can be helped. They then will arrange the times and dates that they can come and visit the child either at the childcare setting or at home. Play opportunities. There are many types of play opportunities that can be put into place to help support a child’s speech, language and communication. Role play is one of the most important parts of play for children, it covers physical activity as well as allowing the child to communicate, be creative, be independent and build self-confidence. Another play opportunity could be music and movement activities which include singing, dancing and nursery rhymes. The children can be independent and make their own choices to join in. this allows children to communicate with each other and to sing along to the songs and rhymes. Reading stories are vital in a child’s development. By reading and listening, children pick up new words and meanings which allow their knowledge to expand. If a child has a difficulty in communicating or in their speech then books can be very useful for developing their speech and communication. Show and tell is another way of supporting a child’s speech, language and communication. It allows the children to listen to  others and to communicate if they wish to by asking questions about the show and tell that is shown, which can expand their word dictionary by using new words. All of this concludes that noticing a delay in a speech, language or communication development is important to prevent further delay in other areas of development. A theorist is a person who develops or believes an idea in which to explain something, including what, how and why. Theories are development through observations, analysing and experiments. Theories of development are important because they help us to understand children’s behaviour, to help us understand the sequence that children and young people develop. Theorists- influencing current practice. Cognitive development. A Swiss biologist and psychologist jean piaget (1896-1980) is renowned for constructing a highly influential model of child development and learning. He suggested that children develop cognitive skills through mental â€Å"maps†, schemes and network concepts for understanding and responding to physical experiences within his or hers environment. Piagets theory identifies four developments stages these four stages are, sensorimotor stage 0-2 years, preoperational stage 2-7 years, concrete operations 7-11 years, formal operations 11-15 years. Educators must plan activities that are developmentally appropriate according to the curriculum which expands the student’s logical and conceptual growth. Another theorist that supports cognitive development is Vygotsky. He believes that children learn and understand through others around them, such as friends and family. He believed that children need challenges and teaching experiences set for them to help them develop in all areas and to help them to reach their full potential. Psychoanalytical development. Sigmund freud (1856-1939) another theorist believed that there are 3 parts to each child and young person’s personality. He believed that there are; the ID, the ego and the super ego. He believed that these 3 parts aren’t always there from when the child is born but develop with the child as they grow. He said that they are different through certain factors and behaviour between each different child, Humanist. Abraham maslow (1908-1970) looked at peoples motivation in the 1940’s. He believed that people needed to meet their fundamental needs before they could meet their potential or self-actualisation. He believed that if they were not met then they would become a deficiency in the person. This links to practice because we need to meet the needs of the children for, warmth, care, hunger and environment that they are providing and what they do to meet the children’s needs. Social learning. Social learning theorists believe that we learn through observing others. Albert bandura born 1925 believes that we learn through ‘imitation’. Eric Erikson (1902-1994) believed that a child and a young person’s personality will change throughout their life, due to social development and experiences. This links to practice as nursery practitioners are told to be good role models to the children. This is because they observe us and ‘copy’ or ‘imitate’ actions that we may make. Operant conditioning. The theory of operant conditioning is based on learning from the consequences or reinforcement due to a type of behaviour. B.F skinner (1904-1990) is recognised as a key figure for developing the behaviourist approach to learning and developing the theory for operant conditioning. He believed that we learn through our experiences in the environment and the consequences to our behaviour. Skinner separated the sequence of actions into three groups; 1; positive reinforces 2; negative reinforces 3; punishers. The positive reinforcers are what make us repeat actions or behaviour when we get something we desire. Skinner suggested that the positive reinforcement was the most effective way of encouraging new learning, such as getting attention from adults, receiving praise and receiving rewards. The negative reinforcers is a behaviour that also makes us repeat actions or behaviour, but not in a bad way but in a way to stop something bad happening from something good. For example children may learn to hold onto the stair rail when walking down the stairs to steady them self rather than feeling the  need to sit on their bottom and bump down them. The ‘punisher’ is what is going to stop people from repeating behaviour, such as checking the temperature of the bath water before getting in it, after burning yourself because you didn’t check. Skinner also researched unexpected positive reinforcers. This is when children show negative behaviour to receive attention from adults. He proved that showing more frequent positive reinforcement was the most thriving way to help children learn about acceptable behaviour. This links to practice because we reward and praise children for showing positive behaviour. Nursery practitioners often say ‘well done’ to children as a way of praising them for showing positive behaviour than their negative behaviour. We also try to focus more on children’s positive behaviour rather than their negative behaviour, this is because they eventually learn that their good behaviour is more noticed and praised than their bad behaviour. This proves skinners theory. Behaviourist. The behaviourist theories suggest that learning is influenced by rewards, punishments and environmental factors. ‘conditioning’ is often used by behaviourists because we learn in a certain way due to past experiences that teach us not to do something or to do something. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) was a physiologist who was studying dogs. Whilst doing this he recognised that the dogs started to salivate before their food had been put down for them. He came to the conclusion that they were doing this because they learnt to associate the arrival of the food with other things such as, the sound of footsteps and the bowls or buckets. He did and experiment to look at this more closely. He used a bell because dogs do not salivate when hearing a bell. The dogs eventually begun to associate the bell with been fed. He then rang the bell constantly and eventually the dogs begin to stop salivating and finally did not react to the sound of the bell. Behaviourists use the term extinction when this happens. John b.watson (1878-1958 Took up pavlovs work and demonstrated that children and adults can be classically conditioned. In an experiment he created a phobia of rats in a little boy known as little Albert. In our practice we do not experiment or use classical conditioning, although we may recognise it among the children for example, children may become excited when they see bowls or a tray been  brought into the room, they may associate this with food being given to them after this happens. Another example would be that at the end of the day all the children put their coats on they then may anticipate home time because they associate putting their coats on with their parents arriving to take them home. It is also useful to remember that classical conditioning can relate to children’s phobias. Social pedagogy. Social pedagogy is the holistic and thoughtful way of working. The aim of this is to improve the life chances and social outcomes of babies and children, therefore we must work with each other as well as the children to find the best possible way of improving these outcomes. The theories of development that have been shown help childcare workers put together framework and education for the children. It also helps us to understand why babies, children and young people do things the way they do. Conclusion. This shows that theorists have helped us come to conclusions for why we do things the way we do as well as how we learn through our experiences. It also helps to understand these theories so that we can provide better care and knowledge in the childcare setting. Task c. introduction pack for a new staff member. At the mother goose pre-school we monitor each child’s development we do this by using the learning journey. In the children’s learning journey we have â€Å"early learning goals† for each specific age group, to give us guidelines or the â€Å"norm† development for each stage of their time at the setting. We also carry out observations on the children to show which stage they are at, at the time on the early learning goals. Before any observations take place on the children, permission must be given from the parent/carer, this is also helpful as we can share findings with the child’s parent/carer and they can share findings with ourselves. If we were to do observations on a child without consent from their parent/carer then they may feel angry and upset as they may not understand that this is normal practice and help us to help the children. Assessment methods. Here are two examples of assessment methods we use to monitor a child’s  development; checklist/tick chart and a free description with a snap shot picture. A checklist and tick chart observation is a chart with particular activities written on and the child is observed to see if they can reach the milestones set according to the child’s age. These observations are usually taken place when structured activities are set up for the children to do and are based over a longer period of time, but are taken place less frequently to show the progress in the children’s development. The advantage of using this observation is that you can observe more than one child at a time and they are quick and easy to use. The disadvantage of this is that observing at different times may produce different results and that it only shows what the child can and cannot do, not how confident and happy they are to attempt tasks and join in. A free description with a snap shot picture is to show skills that children show or are seen doing. A description of what you see is written into a small observation sheet and put the child’s learning journey next to the picture of them doing so. These observations are used frequently to show what milestones the child is at for their age group. The observation has the advantage of been able to use it frequently and no preparation is needed. Although the advantage is that different observers pick up on different things that children do and it can be hard sometimes to find the right words to use to describe what you are seeing. Examples of why sometimes child/young person’s development does not follow the expected pattern. Children develop at different stages for example, a baby of 12 months may be walking with support but a baby of 10 months may be walking unaided. Some children just happen to develop quicker or slower than others, but for some babies and children there are reasons why their development does not follow the expected patterns. Premature birth can have an effect on development, such as sitting up unaided, crawling, standing and walking. Learning difficulties can also have an impact on development, some children may pick up writing and reading easier than with a learning difficulty, but help is available such as special support and multi-agency approaches. Another reason why development may be delayed could be disability for example, a baby that has a disability with their legs may not be able to walk until they are 2 or 3 where as the expected age is roughly 1 years old. Impact by disability. Disability can impact and effect development as it can prevent children and young people from completing tasks. Although most activities can be adapted to suit children and young people’s needs. Intervention. Intervention can be done to promote positive outcomes for the child or young person where development is not following the expected pattern. Specialist support can be used in the preschool to support children with learning difficulties or disabilities. They can arrange meetings to come and see the child to observe them and give the child’s key worker activities and goals for the child to meet. Multi agency approaches can also take place to help babies, children and young people to meet the expected pattern of development. Another intervention could be supported play by adapting the activities to support the child or young person to reach the milestones for their age group. Task d . Early identification. Early identification of speech, language or communication delay is important for a childs well-being because it can affect their development. The sooner it is picked up on the sooner it can be amended therefore the child will not miss out on educational activities and lessons which would otherwise potentially hold them further back. Potential risks. Any delays in a child’s speech, language and communication could result in a lack of development in the future. They may not be able to develop their skills further for example, if a child cannot speak then communication will also become a problem. This is why it is important to identify these delays early. If a child cannot speak then their development will slow down as they cannot further their skills through others around them. This can therefore cause the problem to become greater if it is left to long. Importance of early identification and potential risks of late recognition. It is very important that early identification to speech, language and communication as it can affect children and young people’s further development and expanding skills. If it is picked up on early enough then help can be given to the child to either overcome the issue or to give extra support to them to help them develop further. If it isn’t picked up on early enough then the child  could fall behind in development and education. When a child falls behind it can sometimes be difficult for them to catch up although there are organisations to give extra support to the child. Multi-agency team. There are many organisations that can help support a child or young person’s speech, language and communication. The child’s GP (general practitioner) can refer the child to a speech therapist which will help their speech and communication. The child’s health visitor can also help with the child’s speech, language and communication. How when and why. A multi-agency team would be brought in to support a child when a speech, language or communication delay takes place. The manager would have a meeting with the child’s parent/carer to discuss the issue and then they would discuss the best possible option for the child. If they decide that a multi-agency team is to be contacted then a meeting would be arranged with the team to examine how the child can be helped. They then will arrange with the team to examine how the child can be helped. They then will arrange the times and dates that they can come and visit the child either at the childcare setting or at home. Play opportunities. There are many types of play opportunities that can be put into place to help support a child’s speech, language and communication. Role play is one of the most important parts of play for children, it covers physical activity as well as allowing the child to communicate, be creative, be independent and build self-confidence. Another play opportunity could be music and movement activities which include singing, dancing and nursery rhymes. The children can be independent and make their own choices to join in. this allows children to communicate with each other and to sing along to the songs and rhymes. Reading stories are vital in a child’s development. By reading and listening, children pick up new words and meanings which allow their knowledge to expand. If a child has a difficulty in communicating or in their speech then books can be very useful for developing their speech and communication. Show and tell is another way of supporting a child’s speech, language and communication. It allows the children to listen to  others and to communicate if they wish to by asking questions about the show and tell that is shown, which can expand their word dictionary by using new words. All of this concludes that noticing a delay in a speech, language or communication development is important to prevent further delay in other areas of development.